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Although chondroitin appears to be helpful in treating osteoarthritis cheap 120mg silvitra fast delivery erectile dysfunction doctor tampa, it is not useful for these other conditions order silvitra 120 mg with mastercard impotence natural. Shark cartilage can cause hypercalcemia (excessive amounts of in the body) when taken at the rec- Center for Alternative Medicine Research in Cancer Home Page. Some patients taking chondroitin have been Beth Kapes known to experience nausea and or bloating. Odle Chondroitin sulfate is not known to cause any sig- nificant interactions with other medications. One re- searcher, however, has suggested that chondroitin might increase the effect of anticoagulant drugs and should probably not be used in combination with them. Bioterrorism Digitalis Side effects Ricin ORGANIZATIONS Interactions Cataracts Definition Resources Description BOOKS PERIODICALS 372 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 KEY TERMS. It is not an malnutrition may cause brain damage, as can the use of inherited disorder, and as of yet there is no way to predict drugs, including cocaine or alcohol. It is not a tors may cause CP, they may be more likely to cause disease, and is not communicable. However manifestation of the symp- mother and child was once a major cause of athetoid CP, toms may become more severe over time. When the nerve cells (neu- tion is now rare because of testing procedures that identi- rons) in these regions die, the appropriate signals can no fy potential Rh incompatibility, and treatment that pre- longer be sent to the muscles under their control. Blood transfusions for the child are also possible in The brain damage leading to CP may be caused by extreme cases. Despite the virtual elimination of this lack of oxygen (asphyxia), infection, trauma, malnutrition, cause of CP in the last few decades, CP rates have not drugs or other chemicals, or hemorrhage. In most cases it declined, largely because of the increase of survival of is impossible to determine the actual cause, although pre- premature babies. It was once thought that difficult or prolonged delivery was Prematurity is one of the most significant risk fac- responsible for many cases of CP, but most researchers tors for CP. About 7% of babies weighing less than three now believe that the great majority of cases result from pounds at birth develop CP, and the risk increases dra- brain damage occurring before birth. Prematurity may increase the damages the motor areas can harm other areas as well, risk of CP because of the increased likelihood of hemor- leading to problems commonly associated with CP. Brain hemorrhage is most common in babies weighing If brain cells do not get enough oxygen because of less than four pounds at birth, and the risk increases as poor circulation, they may die. The hemorrhage may destroy brain tis- developing brain may cause CP in some cases. Asphyxia sue, either through asphyxia or release of toxic break- during birth is also possible, and about half of newborns down products. However, asphyxia during birth is Researchers in Sweden reported in 2002 that babies usually considered a symptom of an underlying neurologi- conceived through in vitro fertilization (IVF) were 3. Some of the reason can be attributed to a higher after birth can be caused by choking, poisoning (such as rate of twins, low birthweight, and premature births as- from carbon monoxide or barbiturates), or near-drowning. As children develop in the first 18 months of life, tis and, infections of the brain and its cover- however, they progress through a predictable set of de- ings, can also cause CP when contracted by infants. Children with CP will develop Physical trauma to the pregnant mother or infant these skills more slowly because of their motor impair- may cause brain damage. Even before the discovery of America by Euro- peans, Native Americans used powdered charcoal mixed For acute poisoning, the dosage is as follows: with water to treat an upset stomach. Now charcoal is • infants (under 1 year of age): 1 g/kg being rediscovered as an alternative treatment for this • children (1-12 years of age): 15-30 g or 1-2 g/kg with condition. Its at least 8 oz of water huge surface area is ideal for soaking up different sub- stances, including gas. In one study, people taking acti- • adults: 30-100 g or 1-2 g/kg with at least 8 oz of water vated charcoal after eating a meal with high gas-produc- ing foods did not produce more gas than those who did not have these foods. Charcoal has also been used to A person can take charcoal tablets or capsules with treat other intestinal disorders such as diarrhea, water or sprinkle the content onto foods. There are few studies to support treatment of gas or diarrhea in adults is 520-975 mg after these uses and there are also concerns that frequent use each meal and up to 5 g per day. Besides being a general antidote for poisons or rem- edy for gas, activated charcoal has been used to treat Charcoal should not be taken together with syrup of other conditions as well.

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A term used for a group of pain-relieving medica- tions that also reduce inflammation when used Peter Gregutt over a period of time cheap silvitra 120mg with visa impotence low testosterone. Lobelia increases the risk of loss of potassium from the body (hypokalemia) if it is taken together with diuretics Lomatium or corticosteroids buy 120mg silvitra with mastercard otc erectile dysfunction pills that work. Description The name lomatium generally refers to Lomatium Resources dissectum, one of the numerous species and varieties of BOOKS the Lomatium genus that is native to western North Amer- Balch, James F. The entire lomatium plant is 1226 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 edible, and numerous Native American groups regarded practitioner might recommend the use of lomatium for a the lomatium plant as a food source and medicinal reme- person diagnosed with fibromyalgia, a muscular inflam- dy. Causes of fibromyalgia are not are unearthed during the months between early spring known, but are thought by some to be connected to and fall. Symptoms include an impaired immune system, The roots are then sliced and allowed to dry again. The state enact- which causes rash in some people, and coumarins, which ed a law that placed a three-year moratorium on the could possibly cause rash as well. The coumarins, how- wildcrafting of lomatium, wild echinacea, butterroot, ever, are being investigated for their possible usefulness and sundew that grow on state land. Plants like lo- Lomatium is also known as Indian biscuit root, bis- matium face the risk of becoming endangered because of cuit root, desert parsley, desert parsnip, fern-leafed lo- increased popularity and usage of herbal remedies, and matium, ferula dissoluta, Indian desert parsnip, Indian reduction of habitat due to development. Long-term solutions include General use habitat protection and cultivation of herbs in home gar- dens and on commercial farms. Several organizations, Many Native American groups recognized the value such as United Plant Savers ( Preparations Native Americans chewed on the root to treat a Lomatium is available as an extract, as a tincture, range of respiratory infections. Fresh root extract in an alcohol so- conditions including cold, flu, bronchitis, tuberculosis, lution is believed to be the most effective remedy. The herb was smoked during Lomatium tea, an infusion, is made by pouring one rituals, and healers used the smoke to treat respiratory cup of boiling water over 1–2 tsp. Lomatium was used when the Native Ameri- mixture is steeped for 25 minutes and then strained. Lo- cans were exposed to tuberculosis and other diseases that matium tea can be taken three times a day. Lomatium contains a resin that can cause a painful When the world faced the influenza pandemic of rash in some people. To avoid this rash, people can use “lo- 1917–18, Americans tried remedies such as castor oil, matium isolates,” which are extracts with the resins re- tobacco, aspirin, and morphine. The extract can be taken at a dosage of 1–3 ml ommended use of lomatium, and the remedy was used each day. In tincture form, the daily dosage is generally with reported success, especially in the Southwest. Contemporary uses of lomatium Precautions Lomatium is currently used as an antiviral remedy Before beginning herbal treatment, people should to treat colds, coughs, and infections. A knowledge- known for boosting the immune system and reducing in- able herbalist can give advice about dosages. Lower doses can also cause rash in people who are for conditions such as asthma, hay fever, mononucleo- sensitive to lomatium resin. A person should first take a sis, infective bronchitis, tuberculosis, and the early small amount of tincture to test for a rash reaction. Other uses of lomatium include rash will go away in one to six days after discontinuing treatment of skin infections, cuts, and sores. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 1227 Lomatium and other herbal remedies are not regu- lated by the United States Food and Drug Administration KEY TERMS (FDA) in the same way that prescription drugs are regu-. This difference means that the effectiveness of lo- Coumarins—A group of crystalline compounds matium has not been scientifically tested. In addition, found in lomatium that may be useful in treating supplements are not standard in their ingredients or HIV infection. Women who are pregnant or nursing should not Infusion—A liquid extract of a herb prepared by use lomatium, because its safety for these conditions has steeping or soaking plant parts in water or another not been determined. Potentiate—To intensify the effects of another Side effects herb or prescription medication.

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Everman discount 120 mg silvitra mastercard erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation underlying causes and available treatments, MD Science Writer Bethanne Black Clinical Geneticist Eastsound buy silvitra 120 mg visa erectile dysfunction guide, WA Medical Writer Greenwood Genetic Center Atlanta, GA Greenwood, SC Lisa Andres, MS CGC Certified Genetic Counselor Jennifer Bojanowski, MS CGC L. Bosworth, MS CGC Genetic Counselor Antonio Farina, MD PhD New York, NY Eugene, OR Medical Writer Sharon Aufox, MS CGC Dept. Brandt University of Bologna Rockford Memorial Hospital Medical Writer Italy Rockford, IL San Francisco, CA Kathleen Fergus, MS Dawn Cardeiro, MS CGC Genetic Counselor/Medical Writer Deepti Babu, MS Genetic Counselor San Francisco, CA Genetic Counselor Fairfield, PA Marshfield Clinic Lisa Fratt Marshfield, WI Suzanne M. Carter, MS CGC Medical Writer Senior Genetic Counselor Ashland, WI Kristin Baker Niendorf, MS CGC Clinical Coordinator Genetic Counselor Sallie B. Freeman, PhD Montefiore Medical Center Massachusetts General Hospital Assistant Professor Bronx, NY Boston, MA Dept. Cohen, MS CGC Emory University Carin Lea Beltz, MS CGC Genetic Counselor Atlanta, GA Genetic Counselor and Program San Francisco, CA Director Mary E. Freivogel, MS The Center for Genetic Counseling Randy Colby, MD Account Executive Indianapolis, IN Senior Medical Genetics Fellow Myriad Genetic Laboratories, Inc. Greenwood Genetic Center Salt Lake City, UT Abdel Hakim Ben Nasr, PhD Greenwood, SC Medical Writer Rebecca Frey, PhD Dept. Neil, MS CGC Orange, CA Obstetrix Medical Group of Texas Genetic Counselor Fort Worth, TX Long Island, NY Taria Greenberg, MHS Medical Writer Paul A. Nutting, MS CGC Houston, TX Medical Writer Senior Genetic Counselor San Diego, CA Phoenix Genetics Program David E. Greenberg, MD University of Arizona Medicine Resident Melissa Knopper Phoenix, AZ Baylor College of Medicine Medical Writer Houston, TX Chicago, IL Marianne F. Knutel, MS CGC Medical Writer Medical Student Genetic Counselor Farmington Hills, MI Baylor College of Medicine Chicago, IL Houston, TX Barbara Pettersen, MS CGC Karen Krajewski, MS CGC Genetic Counselor Farris Farid Gulli, MD Genetic Counselor Genetic Counseling of Central Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Assistant Professor of Neurology Oregon Farmington Hills, MI Wayne State University Bend, OR Judy C. Hawkins, MS Detroit, MI Toni Pollin, MS CGC Genetic Counselor Sonya Kunkle Research Analyst The University of Texas Medical Medical Writer Division of Endocrinology, Branch Baltimore, MD Diabetes, and Nutrition Galveston, TX University of Maryland School of Renée Laux, MS David Helwig Medicine Certified Genetic Counselor Medical Writer Baltimore, MD Eastern Virginia Medical School London, ON, Canada Norfolk, VA Scott J. Lorson, PhD Division of Clinical and Metabolic Nottingham, England Assistant Professor Genetics Dept. Hunt, MS Arizona State University Toronto, ON, Canada Genetic Counselor Tempe, AZ University of New Mexico Health Robert Ramirez, BS Sciences Center Maureen Mahon, BSc MFS Medical Student Albuquerque, NM Medical Writer University of Medicine & Dentistry Calgary, AB of New Jersey Cindy Hunter, MS CGC Nicole Mallory, MS Stratford, NJ Genetic Counselor Medical Genetics Department Medical Student Julianne Remington Indiana University School of Wayne State University Medical Writer Medicine Detroit, MI Portland, OR Indianapolis, IN Ron C. Michaelis, PhD FACMG Jennifer Roggenbuck, MS CGC Kevin Hwang, MD Research Scientist Genetic Counselor Medical Writer Greenwood Genetic Center Hennepin County Medical Center Morristown, NJ Greenwood, SC Minneapolis, MN xvi GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS Edward R. Rosick, DO MPH MS Genevieve Slomski, PhD Oren Traub, MD PhD University Physician/Clinical Medical Writer Resident Physician Assistant Professor New Britain, CT Dept. Solis, MS Hospitals Medical Writer Seattle, WA Judyth Sassoon, ARCS PhD Decatur, GA Amy Vance, MS CGC Medical Writer Genetic Counselor Dept. Biochemistry Genetic Counselor San Francisco, CA University of Bern University of Florida Bern, Switzerland Gainesville, FL Brian Veillette, BS Medical Writer Jason S. Assistant Director of Molecular Medical Writer Holland, OH Diagnostics Berkeley, CA SUNY Upstate Medical University Charles E. Sweet, MS CGC Laguna Hills, CA JC Self Research Center Cancer Genetic Counselor Jennifer F. Wilson, MS Greenwood Genetic Center James Cancer Hospital Science Writer Greenwood, SC Ohio State University Haddonfield, NJ Columbus, OH Philip J. Seaver, MD Catherine Tesla, MS CGC Research Fellow Clinical Geneticist Senior Associate, Faculty Dept. Zuck, PhD Health Educator/Medical Writer Medicine Medical Writer Wilmington, DE Atlanta, GA Boulder, CO GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS xvii A 4p minus syndrome see Wolf-Hirschhorn Although the responsible gene has been identified, test- ing for gene mutations is available only in research labo- syndrome ratories. Aarskog syndrome is also called Faciogenital dysplasia, Faciogenitodigital syndrome, and Aarskog- 5p deletion syndrome see Cri du chat Scott syndrome. In most cases, the altered gene in syndrome affected males is inherited from a carrier mother. Since males have a single X chromosome, mutations in the 47,XXY syndrome see Klinefelter syndrome FGD1 gene produces full expression in males. Females who carry a mutation of the FGD1 gene on one of their two X chromosomes are usually unaffected, but may have subtle facial differences and less height than other females in the family.

Unavoidable tissue injury during dis- On the basis of these parameters generic silvitra 120mg on-line erectile dysfunction stress, differ- section purchase 120 mg silvitra with amex impotence natural. Loss of physiological regulation of As a rule, the therapeutic effect or toxic function in the isolated tissue. The artificial milieu imposed on the sponse of a single organ or a limited tissue. By isolating critical organs or tis- sues from a larger functional system, As the concentration is raised by a con- these actions can be studied with more stant factor, the increment in effect di- accuracy; for instance, vasoconstrictor minishes steadily and tends asymptoti- agents can be examined in isolated cally towards zero the closer one comes preparations from different regions of to the maximally effective concentra- the vascular tree, e. The concentration at which a maxi- saphenous vein, or the mesenteric, cor- mal effect occurs cannot be measured onary, or basilar artery. In many cases, accurately; however, that eliciting a isolated organs or organ parts can be half-maximal effect (EC50) is readily de- kept viable for hours in an appropriate termined. It typically corresponds to the nutrient medium sufficiently supplied inflection point of the concentra- with oxygen and held at a suitable tem- tion–response curve in a semilogarith- perature. Responses of the preparation to a Full characterization of a concentra- physiological or pharmacological stim- tion–effect relationship requires deter- ulus can be determined by a suitable re- mination of the EC50, the maximally cording apparatus. Thus, narrowing of a possible effect (Emax), and the slope at blood vessel is recorded with the help of the point of inflection. It is possible to circumvent compen- satory responses that may partially cancel the primary effect in the intact organism — e. Quantification of Drug Action 55 Portal vein Coronary Basilar Saphenous Mesenteric artery artery artery vein Vasoconstriction 1 min Active tension 1 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 100 Drug concentration A. Measurement of effect as a function of concentration Effect % Effect 50 (in mm of registration unit, 100 (% of maximum effect) e. Concentration-effect relationship Lüllmann, Color Atlas of Pharmacology © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Binding commonly oc- stant and corresponds to that ligand curs at specific cell structures, namely, concentration at which 50% of binding the receptors. The values given in ing to receptors aims to determine the (A) and used for plotting the concentra- affinity of ligands, the kinetics of inter- tion-binding graph (B) result when KD = action, and the characteristics of the 10. The differing affinity of different li- In studying the affinity and number gands for a binding site can be demon- of such binding sites, use is made of strated elegantly by binding assays. Al- membrane suspensions of different tis- though simple to perform, these bind- sues. This approach is based on the ex- ing assays pose the difficulty of correlat- pectation that binding sites will retain ing unequivocally the binding sites con- their characteristic properties during cerned with the pharmacological effect; cell homogenization. Provided that this is particularly difficult when more binding sites are freely accessible in the than one population of binding sites is medium in which membrane fragments present. Therefore, receptor binding are suspended, drug concentration at must not be implied until it can be the “site of action” would equal that in shown that the medium. The drug under study is ra- • binding is saturable (saturability); diolabeled (enabling low concentra- • the only substances bound are those tions to be measured quantitatively), possessing the same pharmacological added to the membrane suspension, mechanism of action (specificity); and allowed to bind to receptors. Mem- • binding affinity of different substanc- brane fragments and medium are then es is correlated with their pharmaco- separated, e. Binding assays provide information Binding increases in proportion to con- about the affinity of ligands, but they do centration as long as there is a negligible not give any clue as to whether a ligand reduction in the number of free binding is an agonist or antagonist (p. Use of sites (c = 1 and B ≈ 10% of maximum radiolabeled drugs bound to their re- binding; c = 2 and B ≈ 20%). As binding ceptors may be of help in purifying and approaches saturation, the number of analyzing further the receptor protein. The law of mass action describes the hyperbolic relationship between binding (B) and ligand concentration (c). Quantification of Drug Action 57 Addition of radiolabeled drug in different Organs concentrations Homogenization Membrane Mixing and incubation suspension Determination of radioactivity Centrifugation c = 1 c = 2 c = 5 B = 10% B = 20% B = 30% c = 10 c = 20 c = 40 B = 50% B = 70% B = 80% A. Measurement of binding (B) as a function of concentration (c) % Binding (B) % Binding (B) 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 10 20 30 40 50 1 10 100 Concentration (linear) Concentration (logarithmic) B.